Stumbled upon this. It doesn’t fit in any category.
“In a 2001 study, freshman enrolled in a vocational school for computer programming were put into two three groups. One group did mental contrasting in which they thought of positive aspects of finishing their program (feelings of pride, improved job prospects etc) and then thought of obstacles in the way (being distracted by peers, feeling lazy). Another group only thought about positive aspects of reaching their goal, and the last group only thought about the obstacles to finishing the program.”
“At the end of the study only the group that did mental contrasting and had expectations of success invested high degrees of effort as reported by themselves and their teachers and they also got the highest grades. Students in the Mental Contrasting group with low expectations felt the least energized and expended the least effort and consequently got the lowest grades. Participants in the other two groups did not show any differences in motivation or achievement based on their expectations of success.”
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